Muslim Brotherhood

The Al-Ikhwn, The Society of the Muslim Brothers (often simply Brotherhood or MB) is an Islamist transnational movement and the largest political opposition organization in many Arab states. The group is the world’s oldest and largest Islamic political group,[1] and the “world’s most influential Islamist movement.”[2] The Brotherhood has as its slogan “Islam is the solution”.[3] It was founded in 1928 in Egypt by the Islamic scholar and schoolteacher Hassan al-Banna. The Brotherhood’s stated goal is to instill the Qur’an and Sunnah as the “sole reference point for … ordering the life of the Muslim family, individual, community … and state”.[4] Since its inception in 1928 the movement has officially opposed violent means to achieve its goals.[5][6] Jeremy Bowen, BBC Middle East editor, calls it “conservative and non-violent,”[7] and “poorly understood – especially in the West.”[8] The Brotherhood condemned terrorism and the 9/11 attacks,[9][10] but whether or not it has ties to terrorism is a matter of dispute.[11] The Brotherhood’s nonviolent stance has resulted in breakaway groups from the movement, including the Al-Gama’a al-Islamiyya and Al Takfir Wal Hijra.[12] Osama bin Laden has similarly criticized the Brotherhood, and accused it of betraying jihad and the ideals of Sayyid Qutb, an influential Brother member and author of Milestones.[13][14] In Egypt, the Brotherhood has stated that, while it seeks the establishment of an Islamic state, it would not force women to cover up.[15].

The Muslim brotherhood started off as a social organization, preaching Islam, teaching the illiterate, setting up hospitals, and even launched commercial enterprises. As it continued to rise in influence, starting in 1936, it began to oppose British rule in Egypt.[16] Many Egyptian nationalists accuse the Brotherhood of violent killings during this period.[17] After the 1948 Arab defeat in the First Arab-Israeli war, the Egyptian government dissolved the organization and arrested its members; its founder was assassinated.[16] After the Egyptian coup of 1952, which was supported by the Brotherhood, it was once again banned and repressed.[3] Though the Brotherhood spread to other countries, it was suppressed there too: in 1982, Syria violently crushed a Brotherhood revolt (the Hama massacre).[18] Starting in the 1980s it entered Egypt’s political arena, forming alliances with other parties, and fielding “independent”[19] candidates. When in 2005, the Brotherhood won 20% of the seats, Hosni Mubarak cracked down on the group. As of 2011, the Brotherhood took an active part in the Egyptian protests.[3] The Brotherhood is financed by contributions from its members, who are required to allocate a portion of their income to the movement. Some of these contributions are from members who live in oil-rich countries.[20]

Beliefs:

In the group’s belief, the Quran and Sunnah constitute a perfect way of life and social and political organization that God has set out for man. Islamic governments must be based on this system and eventually unified in a Caliphate. The Muslim Brotherhood’s goal, as stated by Brotherhood founder Hassan al-Banna was to reclaim Islam’s manifest destiny, an empire, stretching from Spain to Indonesia.[21] It preaches that Islam enjoins man to strive for social justice, the eradication of poverty and corruption, and political freedom to the extent allowed by the laws of Islam. The Brotherhood strongly opposes Western colonialism, and helped overthrow the pro-western monarchies in Egypt and other Muslim nations during the early 20th century.

An important belief on the part of intellectuals who have assisted the organization is the reemergence of Islamic Civilization because Western Civilization is perceived to be in decline; in the words of a 2007 essay, “More than forty years ago the premise was made clear: The period of the Western system has come to an end primarily because it is deprived of those life-giving values, which enabled it to be the leader of mankind.” As Sayyid Qutb, an Islamic intellectual and supporter of the Brotherhood wrote in his 1963 book, Milestones, (Ma’alim fi al-Tariq).

The leadership of mankind by Western man is now on the decline, not because Western culture has become poor materially or because its economic and military power has become weak. The period of the Western system has come to an end primarily because it is deprived of those life-giving values, which enabled it to be the leader of mankind. It is necessary for the new leadership to preserve and develop the material fruits of the creative genius of Europe, and also to provide mankind with such high ideals and values as have so far remained undiscovered by mankind, and which will also acquaint humanity with a way of life which is harmonious with human nature, which is positive and constructive, and which is practicable. Islam is the only System which possesses these values and this way of life.[22]

On the issue of women and gender the Muslim Brotherhood interprets Islam conservatively. Its founder called for “a campaign against ostentation in dress and loose behavior,” “segregation of male and female students,” a separate curriculum for girls, and “the prohibition of dancing and other such pastimes…”[23]

The MB is a movement, not a political party, but members have created political parties in several countries, such as the Islamic Action Front in Jordan and Hamas in Gaza and the West Bank. These parties are staffed by Brotherhood members but kept independent from the MB to some degree, unlike Hizb ut-Tahrir which is highly centralized.[24]

Organization:

  • The General Organizational Conference is the highest body of the Ikhwans stemming from the Ikhwans bases, every Usra elects one or two deputies according to its number.

  • The Shura Council has the duties of planning, charting general policies and programs that achieve the goal of the Group. Its resolutions are binding to the Group and only the General Organisational Conference can modify or annul them and the Shura Office has also the right to modify or annul resolutions of the Executive Office. It follows the implementation of the Group policies and programs. It directs the Executive Office and it forms dedicated branch committees to assist in that.[26]

  • Executive Office (Guidance Office) with its leader the General Masul (General Guide) and its members, both appointed by the Shura Office, has to follow up and guide the activities of the General Organisation. It submits a periodical report to the Shura Council about its work and of the activity of the domestic bodies and the general organizations. It distributes its duties to its members according to the internal bylaws.

It has the following divisions : – Executive leadership – Organizational office – Secretariat general – Education office – Political office – Sisters office

In each country there is a Branch committee with a Masul (leader) appointed by the General Executive leadership with essentially the same Branch-divisions as the Executive office has. To the duties of every branch belong fundraising, infiltrating in and overtaking other Muslim organizations for the sake of uniting the Muslims to dedicate them to the general goals of the MB.

The general goals and strategic plans of the MB are only found in Arabic documents. One for Europe called “The Project” was found in 2001 in Switzerland, another for North America was found in 2005 called the “General Strategic Goal for the Group in North America.”[27] An evaluation of this Memorandum was made for the US-Congress and for the Pentagon.[28] Their influence is fast growing, especially in Europe, but not easy to trace while the active members have to keep their membership secret.

One citation from the document “General Strategic Goal for the Group in North America”[29] makes the objectives of the MB clear: “The process of settlement is a ‘Civilization-Jihadist Process’ with all the word means. The Ikhwan must understand that their work in America is a kind of grand Jihad in eliminating and destroying the Western civilization from within and “sabotaging” its miserable house by their hands and the hands of the believers so that it is eliminated and God’s religion is made victorious over all other religions.”

 Main Activity-Plan:

The main goals on mid-term as approved by the Executive office and the Shura Council are formulated in a 5-year action plan derived from transcripts. Note that the following goals are derived from a speech made in the 1980s by Zeid al-Norman – an American-based supporter of the Muslim Brotherhood and may or may not reflect the global goals of the organization:[30]

Primary goals

1.Strengthening the internal structure

2.Administrative discipline

3.Recruitment and settlement of the Dawa’a (lectures and speeches about Islam)

4.Energizing the organization’s work

5.Energizing political work fronts (e.g. in civil political organizations)

Secondary goals

  • Finance and Investment

  • Foreign relations

  • Reviving women’s activity

  • Political awareness to the members of the group

  • “Securing the group” (to find out if they are being monitored, and if, how they can get rid of them)

  • Dawa’ah (the lecture/speech of religion)

  • Media (influencing of and infiltration in the media)

  • Taking advantage of human potential (e.g. infiltration in education, civil organizations)

 In Egypt:

Hassan al-Banna founded the Muslim Brotherhood in the city of Ismailia in March 1928 along with six workers of the Suez Canal Company. It began as a religious, political, and social movement with the credo, “Allah is our objective; the Quran is our constitution, the Prophet is our leader; Jihad is our way; and death for the sake of Allah is the highest of our aspirations.”[31][32] Al-Banna called for the return to an original Islam and followed Islamic reformers like Muhammad Abduh and Rashid Rida. According to him, contemporary Islam had lost its social dominance, because most Muslims had been corrupted by Western influences. Sharia law based on the Qur’an and the Sunnah were seen as laws passed down by Allah that should be applied to all parts of life, including the organization of the government and the handling of everyday problems.[33]

The Brotherhood also saw itself as a political and social movement . Al-Banna strived to be a populist. The Muslim Brotherhood claimed to want to protect the workers against the tyranny of foreign and monopolist companies. It founded social institutions such as hospitals, pharmacies, schools, etc. However, in addition to holding conservative views on issues such as women’s rights,[23] it was from the start extremely hostile to independent working-class and popular organizations such as trade unions.[33] This is disputed however by William Cleveland, who points out that the Muslim Brotherhood became involved with the labour movement early on, and supported efforts to create trades unions and unemployment benefits.[34]

By 1936, it had 800 members, then this number increased greatly to up to 200,000 by 1938. By 1948, the Brotherhood had about half a million members. Robin Hallett says: “By the late 1940s the Brotherhood was reckoned to have as many as 2 million members, while its strong Pan-Islamic ideas had gained its supporters in other Arab lands”.[35] The Muslim Brotherhood also tried to build up something like an Islamist International, thus founding groups in Lebanon (in 1936), Syria (1937), and Transjordan (1946). It also recruited among the foreign students in Cairo. Its headquarters in Cairo became a center and meeting place for representatives from the whole Muslim world.[33]

Underground links to the Nazis began during the 1930s and were close during the Second World War, involving agitation against the British, Jewish immigration to Palestine, espionage and sabotage, as well as support for terrorist activities orchestrated by Haj Amin el-Hussaini in British Mandate Palestine, as a wide range of declassified documents from the British, American and Nazi German governmental archives, as well as from personal accounts and memoirs from that period, confirm.[36] Reflecting this connection the Muslim Brotherhood also disseminated Hitler’s Mein Kampf and The Protocols of the Elders of Zion widely in Arab translations, helping to deepen and extend already existing hostile views about Jews and secular Western societies generally.[37]

In November 1948 police seized an automobile containing the documents and plans of what was thought to be the Brotherhood’s “secret apparatus” (its military wing) with names of its members. The seizure was preceded by an assortment of bombings and assassination attempts by the apparatus. Subsequently 32 of its leaders were arrested and its offices raided.[17] The next month the Prime Minister of Egypt, Mahmud Fahmi Nokrashi, ordered the dissolution of the Brotherhood. In what is thought to be retaliation for these acts, a member of the Brotherhood, veterinary student Abdel Meguid Ahmed Hassan, assassinated the Prime Minister on December 28, 1948. A month and half later Al-Banna himself was killed in Cairo by men believed to be government agents and/or supporters of the murdered premier.

 The Brotherhood has been an illegal organization, tolerated to varying degrees, since 1954 when it was convicted of the attempt to assassinate Gamal Abdel Nasser, head of the Egyptian government. The group had denied involvement in the incident and accused the government of staging the incident to use it as a pretext to persecute the group and its members. On this basis from 1954 until Nasser’s death in 1970, thousands of Muslim Brotherhood members were systematically tortured under Nasser’s secular regime, highlighted in Zainab al Ghazali’s Return of the Pharaoh. More recently, since the mid-2000s, some young Muslim Brotherhood members have publicly identified themselves as members of the banned organizations on their blogs, where they have been critical of both the existing system as well as aspects of the Muslim Brotherhood organization itself.[38]

 The Brotherhood is still periodically subjected to mass arrests. It remains the largest opposition group in Egypt, advocating Islamic reform, democratic system and maintaining a vast network of support through Islamic charities working among poor Egyptians.[39] The political direction it has been taking lately has tended towards more moderate secular “Islamism” and so-called Islamic Democracy comparable to Christian Democrat movements in Europe, the Christian-right in the United States, and the Muslim oriented democratic parties of Turkey.

 In the 2005 parliamentary elections, the Brotherhood’s candidates, who had to run as independents due to their illegality as a political party, won 88 seats (20% of the total) to form the largest opposition bloc. The electoral process was marred by many irregularities, including the arrest of hundreds of Brotherhood members. One observer, Jameel Theyabi, writing in an op-ed for Dar Al-Hayat, noted that a December 2006 campus demonstration by Muslim Brotherhood university students that included the “wearing of uniforms, displaying the phrase, ‘We Will be Steadfast’, and the drills involving martial arts, betray the group’s intent to plan for the creation of militia structures, and a return by the group to the era of ‘secret cells’….” .[40]

Of course, the huge gains in the 2005 parliamentary elections allowed the Brotherhood to pose “a democratic political challenge to the regime, not a theological one” .[41] Initially, there has been widespread skepticism regarding the movement’s commitment to use its influence to push Egypt forward towards a democratic state. For instance, briefly after the elections Sameh Fawzy remarked in the Al-Ahram Weekly newspaper, “If the Muslim Brotherhood were in a position to enforce its ideological monopoly, the vast majority of the populace would face severe restrictions on its freedom of opinion and belief, not just on religious matters, but on social, political, economic and cultural affairs as well”[42] However, considering its actions in the Egyptian parliament since 2005, it appears that those skeptics misjudged the movement’s scope. In an article for the Middle East Report Samer Shehata from Georgetown University and Joshua Stacher from the British University in Egypt claim that, in fact, it was the Muslim Brotherhood that revived a parliament that till then had “a reputation for being a rubber stamp for the regime” .[43] First of all, according to their observations, the movement did not simply “focus on banning books and legislating the length of skirts” .[44] Instead, the movement’s involvement shows attempts to reform the political system. Unlike other MPs, those associated with the Brotherhood took their parliamentary duties very seriously as an “unmatched record of attendance”[43] already shows. Moreover, they also took their role as members of the opposition to the ruling NDP quite seriously. A significant example is the creation of a considerable opposition to the extension of the emergency law when MPs

associated with the Brotherhood “formed a coalition with other opposition legislators and with sympathetic members of the NDP, to protest the extension”.[41] The overall involvement leads Shehata and Stacher to the conclusion that the Brotherhood has convincingly attempted to transform “the Egyptian parliament into a real legislative body, as well as an institution that represents citizens and a mechanism that keeps government accountable”.[43]

Meanwhile, approved opposition parties won only 14 seats. This revived the debate within the Egyptian political elite about whether the Brotherhood should remain banned.

 Since 2005 Muslim Brotherhood members in Egypt have also become a significant movement online. In 2006 Abdel Menem Mahmoud created the first publicly identified Brotherhood blog, Ana Ikhwan (http://anaikhwan.blogspot.com). In an article for Arab Media & Society (http://www.arabmediasociety.com), Courtney C. Radsch of American University explores how the Egyptian blogosphere expanded as many younger members followed suit, especially the activists who were sympathetic to Kefaya and members who wanted to be part of the discussion about the draft party platform.[38] These “cyberactivists” are often critical of the organization, such as its rejection of women and Copts as being permitted to hold the presidency, and more liberal than their offline counterparts.[38][45][46]

 Whether or not the Brotherhood would unconditionally or conditionally dissolve Egypt’s 32-year peace treaty with Israel is disputed within the Brotherhood. While the deputy leader of the Brotherhood has said the Brotherhood would seek the dissolution of Egypt’s 32-year peace treaty with Israel, [47] a Brotherhood spokesman has said that the Brotherhood would respect the treaty as long as “Israel shows real progress on improving the lot of the Palestinians.” [48]

Founder & First G. leader: (1928–1949) Hassan al Banna

2nd G.L. : (1949–1972) Hassan al-Hudaybi

3rd G.L. : (1972–1986) Umar al-Tilmisani

4th G.L. : (1986–1996) Muhammad Hamid Abu al-Nasr

5th G.L. : (1996–2002) Mustafa Mashhur

6th G.L. : (2002–2004) Ma’mun al-Hudaybi

7th G.L. : (2004–2010) Mohammed Mahdi Akef

8th G.L. : (16 January 2010 – present) Mohammed Badie

?????? ????? or Mentors of the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt General leaders(G.L) ?????? ?????? ????????

In West Asia:

Bahrain

In Bahrain, the Muslim Brotherhood is represented by the Al Eslah Society and its political wing, the Al-Menbar Islamic Society. Following parliamentary elections in 2002, Al Menbar became the joint largest party with eight seats in the forty seat Chamber of Deputies. Prominent members of Al Menbar include Dr Salah Abdulrahman, Dr Salah Al Jowder, and outspoken MP Mohammed Khalid. The party has generally backed government sponsored legislation on economic issues, but has sought a clamp down on pop concerts, sorcery and soothsayers. It has strongly opposed the government’s accession to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights on the grounds that this would give Muslim citizens the right to change religion, when in the party’s view they should be “beheaded”.[49]

 Municipal councillor, Dr Salah Al Jowder, has campaigned against people being able to look into other people’s houses, changing the local by-laws in Muharraq to ensure that all new buildings are fitted with one way glass to prevent residents being able to see out.[50] Although a competitor with the salafist Asalah party, it seems likely that Al Menbar will opt for a political alliance in 2006s election to avoid splitting the Sunni Islamist vote.

 Syria

Muslim Brotherhood in Syria was founded in the 1930s (according to lexicorient.com) or in 1945, a year before independence from France, (according to journalist Robin Wright (author)). In the first decade or so of independence it was part of the legal opposition, and in the 1961 parliamentary elections it won ten seats (5.8% of the house). But after the 1963 coup that brought the Baath Party to power it was banned.[51] It played a major role in the mainly Sunni based resistance movement that opposed the secularist, pan-Arabist Baath Party, (since 1970, it has been dominated by the Alawite Assad family, adding a religious element to its conflict with the Brotherhood). This conflict developed into an armed struggle that continued until culminating in the Hama uprising of 1982, when the rebellion was bloodily crushed by the military.[52]

 Since then, the Brotherhood has ceased to be an active political force inside Syria, but it retains a network of support in the country, of unknown strength, and has external headquarters in London and Cyprus. In recent years it has renounced violence and adopted a reformist platform, calling for the establishment of a pluralistic, democratic political system. The leader of the Syrian Muslim Brotherhood is Ali Sadreddine Bayanouni, who lives as a political refugee in London.

 Membership in the Syrian Brotherhood became a capital offence in Syria in the 1980 (under Emergency Law 49) and remains so, but the headquarters of theMB-linked Palestinian group, Hamas, is located in the Syria’s capital Damascus, where it is given Syrian government support. This is seen by some as an example of the lack of international centralization or even coordination of the MB.[53]

According to leaked American cables, Syrian President Bashar al Assad allegedly called Hamas an “uninvited guest” and said “If you want me to be effective and active, I have to have a relationship with all parties. Hamas is Muslim Brotherhood, but we have to deal with the reality of their presence.”, comparing Hamas to the Syrian Muslim Brotherhood which was crushed by his father Hafez al Assad. He then allegedly claimed Hamas would disappear if peace were brought to the Middle East.[54][55]

British Mandate for Palestine

‘Abd al-Rahman al-Banna, brother of Muslim Brotherhood founder Hasan al-Banna, went to British Mandate for Palestine and established the Muslim Brotherhood there in 1935. A local nationalist, Al-Hajj Amin al-Husseini (see article under Mohammad Amin al-Husayni), eventually appointed by the British as Grand Mufti of Jerusalem in hopes of accommodating him, was the leader of the group in Palestine.[56] Another important leader associated with the Muslim Brotherhood in Palestine was ‘Izz al-Din al-Qassam, an inspiration to Islamists because he had been the first to lead an armed resistance in the name of Palestine against the British in 1935.[57] Under these leaders, many moderate local Arab leaders were assassinated, including King Abdullah I of Jordan, and, from 1921 on, numerous terrorist attacks were perpetrated against Jews, amongst which was the murder of 67 religious Jews, men, women and children, and wounding of many others, in the 1929 Hebron massacre. Al-Hajj Amin al-Husseini led a general uprising against the British from 1936 to 1939; as a Nazi ally he spent the Second World War in Nazi Germany and advocated for and aided their annihilation of the Jews.[58] In 1945, the group established a branch in Jerusalem, and by 1947 twenty-five more branches had sprung up, in towns such as Jaffa, Lod, Haifa, Nablus, and Tulkarm, which total membership between 12,000 to 20,000.

Brotherhood members fought alongside the Arab armies during the 1948 Arab-Israeli war, and, after Israel’s creation, the ensuing Palestinian refugee crisis encouraged more Palestinian Muslims to join the group. After the war, in the West Bank, the group’s activity was mainly social and religious, not political, so it had relatively good relations with Jordan, which was in control of the West Bank after 1950. In contrast, the group frequently clashed with the Egyptian regime that controlled the Gaza Strip until 1967.[59]

In the 1950s and 1960s, the Brotherhood’s goal was “the upbringing of an Islamic generation” through the restructuring of society and religious education, rather than Palestine’s liberation from Israel, and so it lost popularity to national resistance movements and the presence of Hizb ut-Tahrir.[60] Eventually, however, the Brotherhood was strengthened by several factors:The creation of al-Mujamma’ al-Islami, the Islamic Center in 1973 by Shaykh Ahmad Yasin had a centralizing effect that encapsulated all religious organizations.

The Muslim Brotherhood Society in Jordan and Palestine was created from a merger of the branches in the West Bank and Gaza and Jordan. Palestinian disillusion with the liberation front caused them to become more open to alternatives. The Islamic Revolution in Iran offered inspiration to Palestinians. The Brotherhood was able to increase its efforts in Palestine and avoid being dismantled like national resistance groups because it did not focus on the occupation. While national resistance groups were being dismantled, the Brotherhood filled the void.[61]

After the 1967 Six Day War, as Israel’s occupation started, Israel may have looked to cultivate political Islam as a counterweight to Fatah, the main secular Palestinian nationalist political organization.[62][63] Between 1967 and 1987, the year Hamas was founded, the number of mosques in Gaza tripled from 200 to 600, and the Muslim Brotherhood named the period between 1975 and 1987 a phase of ‘social institution building.’[64] The Brotherhood was able to spread its ideology in six important ways. It established associations, used zakat (alms giving) for aid to poor Palestinians, promoted schools, provided students with loans, used waqf (religious endowments) to lease property and employ people, and established mosques. The establishment of mosques was the most effective, because it built hundreds of mosques in the West Bank and Gaza Strip between 1967 and 1987 and could use them for political and recruitment purposes.[61] Likewise, antagonistic and sometimes violent opposition to Fatah, the Palestine Liberation Organization and other secular nationalist groups increased dramatically in the streets and on university campuses.[62]

 The Brotherhood’s downfall was its failure to fight the Israeli occupation, but the Intifada changed the Brotherhood’s position and Hamas was established.[61] The Islamic Resistance Movement, or Hamas, founded in 1987 in Gaza, is a wing of the Brotherhood,[65] formed out of Brotherhood-affiliated charities and social institutions that had gained a strong foothold among the local population. During the First Intifada (1987–93), Hamas militarized and transformed into one of the strongest Palestinian militant groups. The Hamas takeover of the Gaza Strip in 2007 was the first time since the Sudanese coup of 1989 that brought Omar al-Bashir to power, that a Muslim Brotherhood group ruled a significant geographic territory.[66]

 Israel

The Muslim Brotherhood in Israel -the Islamic Movement-is divided between the southern and northern branches. The southern branch is represented in the Knesset, Israel’s parliament while the northern radical branch boycotts Israeli elections.

 Jordan

The Jordanian branch of the Muslim Brotherhood was formed in 1942, and is a strong factor in Jordanian politics. While most political parties and movements were banned for a long time in Jordan such as Hizb ut-Tahrir, the Brotherhood was exempted and allowed to operate by the Jordanian monarchy. The Jordanian Brotherhood has formed its own political party, the Islamic Action Front, which has the largest number of seats of any party in the Jordanian parliament.[67]

 The Muslim Brotherhood is playing an active role in the unrest in several Arab countries in January 2011. For example, at a rally held outside the Egyptian Embassy in Amman on Saturday, 29th January 2011 with some 100 participants, Hammam Saeed, head of the Muslim Brotherhood of Jordan and a close ally of the Hamas’s Damascus-based leader, Khaled Meshaal, said: “Egypt’s unrest will spread across the Mideast and Arabs will topple leaders allied with the United States.” However, he did not specifically name Jordanian King Abdullah II. [68]

Iran

Although Iran is a predominately Shia country and the Muslim Brotherhood is Sunni in doctrine, Olga Davidson and Mohammad Mahallati claim the Brotherhood has had influence among Shia in Iran.[69] Navab Safavi, who founded Fadaian Islam, (also Fedayeen of Islam, or Fadayan-e Islam), an Iranian Islamic organization active in Iran in the 1940s and 1950s, “was highly impressed by the Muslim Brotherhood.[70] From 1945 to 1951 the Fadain assassinated several high level Iranian personalities and officials who they believed to be un-Islamic. They included anti-clerical writer Ahmad Kasravi, Premier Haj-Ali Razm-Ara, former Premier Abdul-Hussein Hazhir, and Education and Culture Minister Ahmad Zangeneh.[71]

At that time Navab Safavi was an associate and ally of Ayatollah Khomeini who went on to become a figure in the Iranian Revolution of 1979. Safavi is thought to have influenced Khomeini with the ideas of the Brotherhood.[71] Khomeini and other religious figures in Iran worked to establish Islamic unity and downplay Shia-Sunni differences.

 Iraq

The Iraqi Islamic Party was formed in 1960 as the Iraqi branch of the Brotherhood,[72] but was banned from 1961 during the nationalist rule of Abd al-Karim Qasim. As government repression hardened under the Baath Party from February 1963, the group was forced to continue underground. After the fall of the Saddam Hussein regime in 2003, the Islamic Party along with Hizb ut-Tahrir have reemerged as one of the main advocates of the country’s Sunni community. The Islamic Party has been sharply critical of the U.S.-led occupation of Iraq, but participates in the political process.[73] Its leader is Tariq Al-Hashimi. Also, in the north of Iraq there are several Islamic movements inspired by or part of the Muslim Brotherhood network. The Kurdistan Islamic Union (KIU) holds seats in the Kurdish parliament, as is the main political force outside the dominance of the two main secularist parties, the PUK and KDP.[74]

 Saudi Arabia

The Muslim Brotherhood’s brand of Islam and Islamic politics differs from the strict Salafi creed, Wahhabiyya, officially held by the state of Saudi Arabia. Despite this, the Brotherhood has been tolerated by the Saudi government, and maintains a presence in the country. Aside from tolerating the Brotherhood organization, and according to Washington Post report, Saudi Interior Minister Prince Nayef has denounced the Brotherhood publicly, saying it is guilty of “betrayal of pledges and ingratitude” and is “the source of all problems in the Islamic world.” while privately supporting the Brotherhood organization with extensive financial aid via the Hawala networks it maintains.[20]

 Kuwait

The Muslim Brotherhood in Kuwait is represented in the Kuwaiti parliament by Hadas.[75][76]

 Elsewhere in Africa

Algeria

The Muslim Brotherhood reached Algeria during the later years of the French colonial presence in the country (1830–1962). Sheikh Ahmad Sahnoun led the organization in Algeria between 1953 and 1954 during the French colonialism. Brotherhood members and sympathizers took part in the uprising against France in 1954–1962, but the movement was marginalized during the largely secular FLN one-party rule which was installed at independence in 1962. It remained unofficially active, sometimes protesting the government and calling for increased Islamization and Arabization of the country’s politics.

When a multi-party system was introduced in Algeria in the early 1990s, the Muslim Brotherhood formed the Movement for the Society of Peace (MSP, previously known as Hamas), led by Mahfoud Nahnah until his death in 2003 (he was succeeded by present party leader Boudjerra Soltani). The Muslim Brotherhood in Algeria did not join the Front islamique du salut (FIS), which emerged as the leading Islamist group, winning the 1991 elections and which was banned in 1992 following a military coup d’état, although some Brotherhood sympathizers did. The Brotherhood subsequently also refused to join the violent post-coup uprising by FIS sympathizers and the Armed Islamic Groups (GIA) against the Algerian state and military which followed, and urged a peaceful resolution to the conflict and a return to democracy. It has thus remained a legal political organization and enjoyed parliamentary and government representation. In 1995, Sheikh Nahnah ran for President of Algeria finishing second with 25.38% of the popular vote. During the 2000s, the party—led by Nahnah’s

successor Boudjerra Soltani – has been a member of a three-party coalition backing President Abdelaziz Bouteflika.

 Sudan

Until the election of Hamas in Gaza, Sudan was the one country were the Brotherhood was most successful in gaining power, its members making up a large part of the government officialdom following the 1989 coup d’état by General Omar Hassan al-Bashir.

Always close to Egyptian politics, Sudan has had a Muslim Brotherhood presence since 1949. In 1945, a delegation from the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt visited Sudan and held various meetings inside the country advocating and explaining their ideology. Sudan has a long and deep history with the Muslim Brotherhood compared to many other countries. By April 1949, the first branch of the Sudanese Muslim Brotherhood organization emerged. However, simultaneously, many Sudanese students studying in Egypt were introduced to the ideology of the Brotherhood. The Muslim student groups also began organizing in the universities during the 1940s, and the Brotherhood’s main support base has remained to be college educated. In order to unite them, in 1954, a conference was held, attended by various representatives from different groups that appeared to have the same ideology. The conference voted to establish a Unified Sudanese Muslim Brotherhood Organization based on the teachings of Imam Hassan Al-banna.

 An offshoot of the Sudanese branch of the Muslim Brotherhood, the Islamic Charter Front grew during the 1960, with Islamic scholar Hasan al-Turabi becoming its Secretary general in 1964. The Islamic Charter Front (ICM) was renamed several times most recently being called the National Islamic Front (NIF). Turabi has been the prime architect of the NIF as a modern Islamist party. He worked within the Institutions of the government, which led to a prominent position of his organization in the country. NIF supported women’s right to vote and ran women candidates. The Muslim Brotherhood/NIF’s main objective in Sudan was to Islamize the society “from above” and to institutionalize the Islamic law throughout the country where they succeeded.

 The Brotherhood penetrated into the ruling political organizations, the state army and security personal, the national and regional assemblies, the youth and women organizations of Sudan. They also launched their own mass organizations among the youth and women such as the shabab al-binna, and raidat al-nahda, and launched educational campaigns to Islamize the communities throughout the country. At the same time, they gained control of several newly founded Islamic missionary and relief organizations to spread their ideology. The Brotherhood members took control of the newly established Islamic Banks as directors, administrators, employees and legal advisors, which became a source of power for the Brotherhood.

 The Sudanese government has come under considerable criticism for its human rights policies, links to terrorist groups, and war in southern Sudan and Darfur. The conservatism of at least some elements of the Sudanese Muslim Brotherhood was highlighted in an August 3, 2007 Al-Jazeera television interview of Sudanese Muslim Brotherhood leader Sheikh Sadeq Abdallah bin Al-Majed. As translated by the Israeli-based MEMRI, Bin Al-Majed told his interviewer that “the West, and the Americans in particular … are behind all the tragedies that are taking place in Darfur,” as they “realized that it Darfur is full of treasures”; that “Islam does not permit a non-Muslim to rule over Muslims;” and that he had issued a fatwa prohibiting the vaccination of children, on the grounds that the vaccinations were “a conspiracy of the Jews and Freemasons.”[77]

 Somalia

Somalia’s wing of the Muslim Brotherhood is known by the name Harakat Al-Islah or “Reform Movement”. Nonetheless, the Brotherhood, as mentioned earlier, has inspired many Islamist organizations in Somalia. Muslim Brotherhood ideology reached Somalia in the 1960s, but Al-Islah movement was formed in 1978 and slowly grew in the 1980s. Al-Islah has been described as “a generally nonviolent and modernizing Islamic movement that emphasizes the reformation and revival of Islam to meet the challenges of the modern world,” whose “goal is the establishment of an Islamic state” and which “operates primarily in Mogadishu.”[78]

The founders of the Islah Movement are: Sh. Mohamed Ahmed Nur, Dr. Ali Sheikh Ahmed, Dr. Mohamed Yusuf Abdi, Sh. Ahmed Rashid Hanafi, and Sh. Abdullah Ahmed Abdullah. The organization structured itself loosely and was not openly visible on the political scene of Somali society.

 They chose to remain a secret movement fearing the repressive regime of Siad Barre. However, they emerged from secrecy when the regime collapsed in 1991 and started working openly thereafter. Most Somalis were surprised to see the new group they had never heard of, which was in the country since 1970s in secrecy. According to the Islah by-law, every five years the organization has to elect its Consultative (Shura) Council which elects the Chairman and the two Vice-chairman. During the last 30 years, four chairmen were elected. These are Sheikh Mohamed Geryare (1978–1990), Dr. Mohamed Ali Ibrahim (1990–1999), Dr. Ali Sheikh Ahmed (1999–2008) and Dr. Ali Bashi Omar Roraye (2008–2013). Dr. Ali Bashi is a medical doctor, a former university professor and a member of the transitional parliament (2000–2008). During the 1990s, Al-Islah devoted much effort to humanitarian efforts and providing free basic social services.

 The leaders of Al-Islah played a key role in the educational network and establishing Mogadishu University. Through their network, they educate more than 120,000 students in the city of Mogadishu. Many other secondary schools such as the University of East Africa in Bosasso, Puntland, are externally funded and administered through organizations affiliated with the Muslim Brotherhood-affiliated Islamic organization Al-Islah.[78] In Somalia, they are known to be a peaceful organization that does not participate in any factional fighting and rejects the use of violence.

 Today the group’s membership includes urban professionals and students. According to a Crisis Group Report, Somalia’s Islamists, “Al-Islah organization is dominated by a highly educated urban elite whose professional, middle class status and extensive expatriate experiences are alien to most Somalis.

 Although Al-Islah have been criticized by some hardcore Islamists who considered them to be influenced by imperialist western values, Al-Islah speaks of democratic peaceful Somalia. They promote women’s rights, human rights, and other ideas, which they argue that these concepts originate from Islamic concepts. Al-Islah is gaining momentum in the Somali societies for their humanitarian work and moderate view of Islam, which is compatible to modernisation and respect of human rights.

 Tunisia

Like their counterparts elsewhere in the Islamic world in general, the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood has influenced the Tunisia’s Islamists. One of the notable organization that was influenced and inspired by the Brotherhood is Al-Nahda (The Revival or Renaissance Party), which is Tunisia’s 2nd major Islamist grouping after Hizb ut-Tahrir. An Islamist named Rashid Ghannouchi founded the organization in 1981. While studying in Damascus and Paris, Rashid Ghannouchi embraced the ideology of the Muslim Brotherhood, which he disseminated on his return to Tunisia.

 Libya

Libya was one of the first countries outside Egypt to have a Brotherhood group. In the late 1940s when the Egyptian members were being prosecuted, King Idris I of Libya offered the Brotherhood refuge and the freedom to spread their ideology. In 1955, the University of Libya was established in Benghazi, near the Egyptian border, and it drew many Egyptian teachers and lecturers including MB members. The Muslim Brotherhood was able to influence a large number of Libyan students during this period.

Dr. Ezzudine Ibrahim was one of the most influential founders of the Brotherhood in Libya. In the 1950s and 1960s, the Brotherhood was a religious and intellectual tendency in Libya and had many followers amongst the intellectuals and students in the university campuses, and by the mid 1970s it developed a structured Brotherhood organization. The Brotherhood in Libya limited itself to peaceful social, political, economic, and cultural activities.

 Soon after coming to power, Muammar al-Gaddafi regarded the Brotherhood a potential source of opposition. He arrested many Egyptian Brothers and expelled them back to Egypt. In 1973, the security services arrested and tortured members of the Libyan Brotherhood banning the organization and forcing it underground. The secrecy phase helped the Brotherhood to become more popular. The Brotherhood operated secretly in groups of interlinked cells, which was spread in the country. The brotherhood remained underground until the end of 1970s. At the beginning of 1980s, the Brotherhood renamed itself the “Libyan Islamic Group” (Al-Jama’a al-Islamiya al-Libyia) and tried to re-introduce themselves into the Libyan society. On March 2, 2006, the Libyan government released 132 members of the Muslim Brotherhood that were held as political prisoners.

 Their core ideology, strategy, operations and membership are the same as Brotherhood groups in other countries: it seeks to replace the existing regime with one following Sharia law through what it claims are peaceful means. It has an active charitable and welfare wing and has attracted many members of the middle classes, mainly academics, students, engineers and business people. The group has been strengthened by the large number of Libyan students who became member or supporters of the Brotherhood while studying abroad in the United Kingdom and the United States, and have returned home to spread its ideology.

 In the West:

United States

The Muslim Brotherhood has been active in the US since the 1960s. Its stated goals have included propagating Islam and creating havens for Muslims in the US, and integrating Muslims. A main strategy has been dawah or Islamic renewal and outreach. In the 1960s, groups such as U.S. military personnel, prison inmates and African-Americans were specifically targeted for dawah. According to a report done by the NEFA Foundation which cites evidence from the United States v. Holy Land Foundation trial, the goal of the Muslim Brotherhood in the USA is Enablement of Islam in North America, meaning: establishing an effective and stable Islamic Movement led by the Muslim Brotherhood which adopts Muslims causes domestically and globally, and which works to expand the observant Muslim base, aims at unifying and directing Muslims efforts, presents Islam as a civilization alternative, and supports the global Islamic state wherever it is.[79]

 The NEFA Foundation report further explains that in the same document where the goal is stated, considerable time is spent explaining the concept of settlement which is central to the Muslim Brotherhood-led efforts in North America. Settlement is defined as follows: The process of settlement [of Islam in the United States] is a “Civilization-Jihadist” process with all the word means. The Ikhwan must understand that all their work in America is a kind of grand Jihad in eliminating and destroying the Western civilization from within and “sabotaging” their miserable house by their hands and the hands of the believers so that it is eliminated and God’s religion is made victorious over all religions. Without this level of understanding, we are not up to this challenge and have not prepared ourselves for Jihad yet. It is a Muslim’s destiny to perform Jihad and work wherever he is and wherever he lands until the final hour comes, and there is no escape from that destiny except for those who choose to slack.[80]

Organizations in the US started by activists involved with the Muslim Brotherhood include the Muslim Students Association in 1963,[20] North American Islamic Trust in 1971, the Islamic Society of North America in 1981, the American Muslim Council in 1990, the Muslim American Society in 1992, and the International Institute of Islamic Thought in the 1980s.[20] According to the Washington Post, Muslim activists say MSA’s members represent “all schools of Islam and political leanings – many are moderates, while others express anti-U.S. views or support resistance against Israelis.”[20]

 The Holy Land Foundation trial has led to the release as evidence of [81] several documents on the Muslim Brotherhood. One of these documents, dated in 1991, explains that the goal of the Muslim Brotherhood in the U.S. is “settlement”, defined by the author as a form of jihad aimed at destroying Western civilization from within and allowing for the victory of Islam over other religions.[82] In another one of these documents, “Ikhwan in America”, the author alleges that the activities of the Muslim Brotherhood in the US include going to camps to do weapons training (referred to as Special work by the Muslim Brotherhood),[83] as well as engaging in counter-espionage against US government agencies such as the FBI and CIA (referred to as Securing the Group).[84] In November 2008 the Holy Land Foundation was found guilty of illegally funding Palestinian militant group Hamas, which is designated by the United States as a terrorist group.[85]

 Criticisms:

Motives

Numerous officials and reporters question the sincerity of the MB’s pronouncements. These critics include, but are not limited to:

U.S. White House counterterrorism chief Juan Zarate, who says “The Muslim Brotherhood is a group that worries us not because it deals with philosophical or ideological ideas but because it defends the use of violence against civilians.”[86][87]

Raymond Ibrahim, editor of The Al Qaeda Reader, who notes that Muhammad himself described war as “deceit” and that Muslim Brotherhood disciples, past and present, merely duplicate the “everlasting words of Allah,” as iterated in the Qur’an.[88][89]

Miles Axe Copeland, Jr. -a prominent U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) operative who was one of the founding members of the Office of Strategic Services (OSS) under William Donovan- divulges the confessions of numerous members of the Muslim brotherhood that resulted from the harsh interrogations done against them by Egyptian president Gamal Abdel Nasser, for their alleged involvement in the assassination attempt made against Nasser (an assassination attempt that many believe was staged by Nasser himself [90]), which revealed that the Muslim Brotherhood was merely a “guild” that fulfilled the goals of western interests: “Nor was that all. Sound beatings of the Moslem Brotherhood organizers who had been arrested revealed that the organization had been thoroughly penetrated, at the top, by the British, American, French and Soviet intelligence services, any one of which could either make active use of it or blow it up, whichever best suited its purposes. Important lesson: fanaticism is no insurance against corruption; indeed, the two are highly compatible.”[91]

Douglas Farah, a veteran international reporter who describes current Muslim Brotherhood propaganda as a “charm offensive.”[92]

Former U.S. Middle East peace envoy Dennis Ross, who told Asharq Alawsat newspaper that the Muslim Brotherhood is a global, not a local organization, governed by a Shura (Consultative) Council, which rejects cessation of violence in Israel, and supports violence to achieve its political objectives elsewhere too.[93]

Magdy Khalil, executive editor of Egypt’s Watani International, who reports consistent MB deceit concerning Egypt’s 12.5% Coptic Christian population, so as to oppress and dhimmify them.[94]

 The Interior Minister of Saudi Arabia, Prince Naif Ibn Abdul Aziz has stated that the Muslim Brotherhood organization was the cause of most problems in the Arab world. ‘The Brotherhood has done great damage to Saudi Arabia,’ he said. Prince Naif accused the foremost Islamist group in the Arab world of harming the interests of Muslims. ‘All our problems come from the Muslim Brotherhood. We have given too much support to this group…” “The Muslim Brotherhood has destroyed the Arab world,’ he said. ‘Whenever they got into difficulty or found their freedom restricted in their own countries, Brotherhood activists found refuge in the Kingdom which protected their lives… But they later turned against the Kingdom…’ The Muslim Brotherhood has links to groups across the Arab world, including Jordan’s main parliamentary opposition, the ‘Islamic Action Front,’ and the ‘Palestinian resistance movement, ‘Hamas.” The Interior Minister’s outburst against the Brotherhood came amid mounting criticism in the United States of Saudi Arabia’s longstanding support for Islamist groups around the world…”[95]

 Links to violence:

The Brotherhood is widely believed to have had a “secret apparatus” responsible for attacks in Egypt, including the assassination of Mahmoud an-Nukrashi Pasha, the Egyptian Prime Minister in 1948[96] and the president of Egypt in 1981[97] Rachel Aspden’s article, The Rise of the Brotherhood states that The Muslim Brotherhood currently advocates suicide bombing attacks on civilians to fight Zionism, and its self-admitted Palestinian wing Hamas indiscriminately targets Jews as such, both civilians and the military, in Israel.[98] In its Charter, Hamas cites The Protocols of the Elders of Zion and prophesizes the ultimate complete annihilation of Jewry.[99]

 Newsweek journalists Mark Hosenball and Michael Isikoff reported connections between al-Qaeda and Brotherhood figures Mamoun Darkazanli and Youssef Nada.[100] A similar article in the Financial Times reported financial links between 74 year-old Swiss Muslim convert, and businessman Ahmed Huber, and members of the Muslim Brotherhood, notably Youssef Nada, Ali Ghaleb Himmat. According to the U.S. government, Al Taqwa “has long acted as financial advisers to al-Qaeda.” Huber is noted in Europe for his links with alleged neo-Nazi and other far right elements.[101][102] He is reported to have “confirmed” having “had contact with associates of Osama bin Laden at an Islamic conference in Beirut,” whom he called `very discreet, well-educated, very intelligent people.[101]

Abdul Rahman al-Amoudi was an influential lobbyist and founder and head of the Brotherhood-linked American Muslim Council before being convicted and sentenced to 23 years in prison for conspiracy to murder Saudi Prince Abdullah at the behest of Libyan leader Muammar al-Gaddafi.[103]

 Status of Non-Muslims:

In 1997 Muslim Brotherhood Supreme Guide Mustafa Mashhur told journalist Khalid Daoud[104] that he thought Egypt’s Coptic Christians and Orthodox Jews should pay the long-abandoned jizya poll tax, levied on non-Muslims in exchange for protection from the state, rationalized by the fact that non-Muslims are exempt from military service while it is compulsory for Muslims. He went on to say, “we do not mind having Christians members in the People’s Assembly…the top officials, especially in the army, should be Muslims since we are a Muslim country…This is necessary because when a Christian country attacks the Muslim country and the army has Christian elements, they can facilitate our defeat by the enemy.”[105]

 Response to Criticism:

The Brotherhood itself denounces the “catchy and effective terms and phrases” like “fundamentalist” and “political Islam” which it claims are used by “Western Media” to pigeonhole the group, and points to its “15 Principles” for an Egyptian National Charter, including “freedom of personal conviction… opinion… forming political parties… public gatherings… free and fair elections…”[106]

 Similarly, some analysts maintain that whatever the source of modern Jihadi terrorism and the actions and words of some rogue members, the Brotherhood now has little in common with radical Islamists and modern jihadists who often condemn the Brotherhood as too moderate. They also deny the existence of any centralized and secretive global MB leadership.[107] Some claim that the origins of modern Muslim terrorism are found in Wahhabi ideology, not that of the Muslim Brotherhood.[108][109]

 Footnotes

1. The Moderate Muslim Brotherhood, Robert S. Leiken & Steven Brooke, Foreign Affairs Magazine

2. The Muslim Brotherhood in flux 21 Nov 2010 aljazeera

3. “Egypt opposition wary after talks”. BBC News. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-12313405.

4. “Principles of the Muslim Brotherhood”. http://www.ikhwanweb.com/Home.asp? zPage=Systems&System=PressR&Press=Show&Lang=E&ID=4584.

5. “Egyptian Regime Resasserts Its Absolute Disrespect of Law”. February 6, 2007. http://www.ikhwanweb.com/Article.asp?ID=2496&SectionID=77.

6. History of Muslim Brotherhood Movement Homepage.

http://www.ikhwanweb.com/lib/History_of_the_Muslim_Brotherhood_in_Egypt.doc

7. “Egypt unrest: What if Mubarak goes?”. BBC News. 2011-01-31. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-12325128.

8. “Egypt unrest: Possible scenarios”. BBC News. 2011-01-31. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-12326297.

9. “Muslim Brother Hood Condemns 9/11 attack”. http://www.unc.edu/~kurzman/terror.htm.

10. “Muslim Brother Hood Condemns 9/11 attack and calls U.S the world leader in terrorism”. http://ztruth.typepad.com/ztruth/2008/08/top-leader-of-themuslim-brotherhood-calls-america-as-the-worlds-terrorism-leader.html.

11. Crane, Mary. “Does the Muslim Brotherhood Have Ties to Terrorism”. Council on Foreign Relations. http://www.cfr.org/publication/9248/.

12. The Salafist Movement, Frontline (PBS)

13. “Muslim Brotherhood vs Al Qaeda” January 19, 2010

14. “MB Chief Criticism” Dec. 30 2007

15. “Obama: Muslim Brotherhood Lacks Major Support”. CBS News. http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2011/02/06/world/main7324320.shtml.

16. Delanoue, G., “al-Ik€h€w?nal-Muslim?n”, Brill

17. Chamieh, Jebran, Traditionalists, Militants and Liberal in Present Islam, Research and Publishing House, 1994?, p.140

18. “Syria cracks down on ‘Islamists'”. BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/4557543.stm.

19. Egyptian Brotherhood mass arrests

20. In Search Of Friends Among The Foes U.S. Hopes to Work With Diverse Group

21. Davidson, Lawrence (1998) Islamic Fundamentalism Greenwood Press, Westport, Conn., ISBN 0-313-29978-1 pp. 97–98;

22. http://www.think-israel.org/jan07bloged.html

23. In his tract, “Toward the Light” in Five Tracts of Hasan al-Banna, trans. by Charles Wendell (Berkeley, 1978), ISBN 0-520-09584-7 pp.126f., al-Banna writes: Following are the principal goals of reform grounded on the spirit of genuine Islam… Treatment of the problem of women in a way which combines the progressive and the protective, in accordance with Islamic teaching, so that this problem – one of the most important social problems – will not be abandoned to the biased pens and deviant notions of those who err in the directions of deficiency and excess… a campaign against ostentation in dress and loose behaviour; the instruction of women in what is proper, with particular strictness as regards female instructors, pupils, physicians, and students, and all those in similar categories… a review of the curricula offered to girls and the necessity of making them distinct from the boys’ curricula in many stages of education… segregation of male and female students; private meetings between men and women, unless within the permitted degrees of relationship, to be counted as a crime for which both will be censured… the encouragement of marriage and procreation, by all possible means; promulgation of legislation to protect and give moral support to the family, and to solve the problems of marriage… the closure of morally undesirable ballrooms and dance-halls, and the prohibition of dancing and other such pastimes…”

24. The Future of Political Islam, Graham E. Fuller, Palgrave MacMillan, (2003), p.138

25. Zeid al-Noman, “Ikhwan in America”, p. 15-16

26. “The West and Islam”, By Mishal Fahm Sulami

27. “General Strategic goal for North America”, original with translated memorandum

28. “Analyses of Muslim Brotherhood’s General Strategic Goals for North America Memorandum”, by Stephen Coughlin September 7, 2007

29. “General Strategic goal for North America”, original with translated memorandum, page 21(7/18) par.”4- Understanding the role of the Muslim Brother in North America:”

30. Zeid al-Noman, Ikhwan in America (PDF), page 8

31. “FAS Intelligence Resource Program”. http://www.fas.org/irp/world/para/mb.htm.

32. “Muslim Brotherhood Movement Homepage”. http://www.ummah.net/ikhwan/.

33. Küntzel, 2002. Pg. 17–19

34. A History of the Modern Middle East, William Cleveland, p.200

35. Hallett, Robin. Africa Since 1875. Ann Arbor, Michigan: The University of Michigan Press (1974), pg. 138.

36. See Ian Johnson, A Mosque in Munich: Nazis, the CIA and Rise of the Muslim Brotherhood in the West (New York: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2010); Matthias Küntzel, Jihad and Jew-hatred: Islamism, Nazism and the Roots of 9/11 (New York: Telos Press, 2007); Klaus-Michael Mallmann and Martin Cüppers, Halbmond und Hakenkreuz: Das ‘Dritte Reich’, die Araber und Palästina (Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 2006), and Klaus Gensicke, Der Mufti von Jerusalem und die Nationalsocialisten: Eine politische Biographie Amin el-Husseinis (Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 2007).

37. In addition to the studies listed in the previous note, see the detailed and richly documented analysis by Jeffrey Herf, Nazi Propaganda for the Arab World (New Haven, London: Yale University Press, 2009).

38. http://www.arabmediasociety.com/?article=692

39. “IRIN Middle East | EGYPT: Social programs bolster appeal of Muslim Brotherhood | Middle East | Egypt | Education Gender Issues Governance Health & Nutrition Human Rights | News Item”. Irinnews.org. http://www.irinnews.org/report.asp?ReportID=51850. Retrieved 2010-08-27.

40. The Brotherhood’s Power display (18 December 2006)

41. Traub, James. “Islamic Democrats?.” The New York Times 29 April 2007. 28 November 2009

<http://www.nytimes.com/2007/04/29/magazine/29Brotherhood.t.html>.

42. Fawzi, Sameh. “Brothers and Others.” Al-Ahram Weekly 8 December 2005. 9 December 2009 <http:// weekly.ahram.org.eg/2005/772/op8.htm>

43. Shehata, Samer and Joshua Stacher. “The Brotherhood Goes to Parliament.” Middle East Report. Fall 2006. 29 November 2009 <http://www.merip.org/mer/mer240/shehata_stacher.html>.

44. Shehata, Samer and Joshua Stacher. “The Brotherhood Goes to Parliament.” Middle East Report. Fall 2006. 29 November 2009 <http://www.merip.org/mer/mer240/shehata_stacher.html>

45. www.arabinsight.org/aiarticles/186.pdf

46. Lynch, Marc (2007-03-05). “Brotherhood of the blog”. The Guardian (London). http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2007/mar/05/brotherhoodoftheblog.

47. “Muslim Brotherhood seeks end to Israel treaty”. The Washington Times. http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2011/feb/3/muslim-brotherhood-seeksend-to-israel-treaty.

48. “Live Blog: Egypt in Crisis, Day 8″. CBS News. http://www.cbsnews.com/8301-503543_162-20030175-503543.html.

49. “Gulf Daily News”. Gulf Daily News. 2009-03-09. http://www.gulf-dailynews.com/1yr_arc_Articles.asp? Article=136119&Sn=BNEW&IssueID=28339&date=2-22-2006. Retrieved 201008-27.

50. “Gulf Daily News”. Gulf Daily News. 2009-03-09. http://www.gulf-dailynews.com/1yr_arc_Articles.asp? Article=133438&Sn=BNEW&IssueID=28310&date=1/24/2006. Retrieved 201008-27.

51. Wright, Robin, Dreams and Shadows : the Future of the Middle East, Penguin Press, 2008 (p.241)

52. Looklex encyclopedia

53. Wright, Robin, Dreams and Shadows : the Future of the Middle East, Penguin Press, 2008, p.248

54. Roee Nahmias (Roee Nahmias). “Assad: Iran won’t attack Israel with nukes”. ynetnews.com. http://www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,L3992202,00.html. Retrieved December 12, 2010.

55. Meris Lutz (December 2, 2010). “Syria’s Assad seems to suggest backing for Hamas negotiable, leaked cables say”. Los Angeles Times.

http://articles.latimes.com/2010/dec/02/world/la-fg-wikileaks-syria-20101202. Retrieved December 12, 2010.

56. http://archive.frontpagemag.com/readArticle.aspx?ARTID=11146

57. Cohen, 1982. Pg. 144

58. Klaus Gensicke, Der Mufti von Jerusalem und die Nationalsocialisten: Eine politische Biographie Amin el-Husseinis (Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 2007), and Klaus-Michael Mallmann, Martin Cüppers, and Krista Smith, Nazi Palestine: The Plans for the Extermination of the Jews of Palestine (New York: Enigma Books, 2010).

59. [1]

60. 0253208661

61. Ziad Abu-Amr (Summer, 1993), “Hamas: A Historical and Political Background”, Journal of Palestine Studies 22 (4): 5-19, http://www.jstor.org/stable/2538077? &Search=yes&term=political&term=background&term=historical&term=hamas&li st=hide&searchUri=%2Faction%2FdoBasicSearch%3FQuery%3Dhamas%253A %2Ba%2Bhistorical%2Band%2Bpolitical%2Bbackground%26x%3D9%26y %3D11%26wc%3Don&item=3&ttl=215&returnArticleService=showArticle

62. How Israel Helped to Spawn Hamas, by Andrew Higgins Wall Street Journal January 24, 2009

63. How Israel brought Gaza to the brink of humanitarian catastrophe, by Avi Shlaim Guardian UK January 7, 2009

64. [2][dead link]

65. “Hamas Charter”. Mideastweb.org. http://www.mideastweb.org/hamas.htm. Retrieved 2010-08-27.

66. The Talibanization of Gaza: A Liability for the Muslim Brotherhood. by Jonathan Schanzer. August 19, 2009. Current Trends in Islamist Ideology vol. 9

67. Tore Kjeilen (2000-09-20). “Muslim Brotherhood / Jordan – LookLex Encyclopaedia”. Lexicorient.com. http://lexicorient.com/e.o/mus_br_jordan.htm. Retrieved 2010-08-27.

68. Commentator (2011-01-30). “Jordan’s opposition: Arabs will topple tyrants”. timesofindia.indiatimes.com. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/world/middle-east/Jordans-opposition-Arabswill-topple-tyrants/articleshow/7385868.cms. Retrieved 2011-01-30.

69. “Middle East Roundtable”. bitterlemons-international.org. http://www.bitterlemons-international.org/previous.php?opt=1&id=30. Retrieved

2010-08-27.

70. “The Iranian Revolution Echoes in Egypt”, M.J.Toten in Interview with Dr. Abbas Milani

71.

^ a b The Spirit of Allah: Khomeini and the Islamic Revolution by Amir Taheri, Adler and Adler c1985, p.107-109

72. Alan Godlas (1968-07-17). “The Muslim Brotherhood in Iraq”. Uga.edu. http://www.uga.edu/islam/muslim_brotherhood_iraq.html. Retrieved 2010-08-27.

73. John Pike (2010-05-13). “Iraqi Islamic Party”. Globalsecurity.org. http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/iraq/iip.htm. Retrieved 2010-08-27.

74. “Profile: Kurdish Islamist movement”. BBC News. 2003-01-13. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/not_in_website/syndication/monitoring/media_reports/2 588623.stm. Retrieved 2010-04-06.

75. The Future of Political Islam, by Graham E. Fuller, Palgrave MacMillan, (2003) p.39

76. “Charting the Rise of the Muslim Brotherhood”. http://www.spiegel.de/international/world/0,1518,491925,00.html.

77. “Al-Jazeera Interviews – Muslim Brotherhood Leader in Sudan”. http://www.memri.org/bin/opener_latest.cgi?ID=SD168507.

78. International Religious Freedom Report 2004. Somalia

79. http://www1.nefafoundation.org/miscellaneous/nefaikhwan1007.pdf

80. Rod Dreher: What the Muslim Brotherhood means for the U.S.

81. “United States v. Holy Land Foundation”. The NEFA Foundation. http://www.nefafoundation.org/hlfdocs.html. Retrieved 2010-08-27. [dead link]

82. “The Muslim Brotherhood in the United States”

http://www.currenttrends.org/docLib/20090411_Merley.USBROTHERHOOD.pdf

83. Zeid al-Noman, “Ikhwan in America”, pp. 13 and 16

84. Zeid al-Noman, “Ikhwan in America”, p. 13

85. “Holy Land Foundation defendants guilty on all counts | News for Dallas, Texas | Dallas Morning News | Latest News”. Dallasnews.com. 2008-11-25. http://www.dallasnews.com/sharedcontent/dws/dn/latestnews/stories/112508dnm etholylandverdicts.1e5022504.html. Retrieved 2010-08-27.

86. Ehrenfeld, Rachel and Lappen, Alyssa A., (16 June 2006) “The Truth about the Muslim Brotherhood” Front Page Magazine, citing Sylvain Besson, La Conquête De L’Occident: Le Projet Secret Des Islamistes, as quoted in Guitta,

Olivier, (20 February 2006), “The Cartoon Jihad,” The Weekly Standard. Retrieved 3-1-2007.

87. Poole, Patrick, (26 March 2007) “Mainstreaming the Muslim Brotherhood” Front Page Magazine, citing Sylvain Besson, La Conquête De L’Occident: Le Projet Secret Des Islamistes, p. 39). Retrieved 4-25-2007.

88. Raymond Ibrahim on Abu Hamza al-Masri on National Review Online

89. American Thinker: The Al Qaeda Reader: A Review

90. “Revolutionary leader”. gulfnews. http://gulfnews.com/about-gulf-news/alnisr-portfolio/weekend-review/articles/revolutionary-leader-1.40238. Retrieved 2010-08-27.

91. Miles Axe Copeland, Jr., “The Game of Nations: The Amorality of Power Politics, New York: Simon & Schuster, 1970″

92. Douglas Farah: The Amazing Deception in the Muslim Brotherhood’s Charm Offensive

93. “Lufti, Manal, “The Brotherhood and America Part III,” (14 March 2007) Asharq Alawsat”. http://aawsat.com/english/news.asp?section=3&id=8310.

94. Mideast Outpost: THE MUSLIM BROTHERHOOD AND THE COPTS

95. MEMRI, the Middle East Media Research Institute posted this at their website, [3] introducing it with the following: “On November 29, ‘Ain-Al-Yaqeen, a weekly news magazine published online by the Saudi royal family, released an English translation of an interview with Saudi Minister of Interior Prince Nayef Ibn Abd Al-Aziz; the interview originally appeared in the Kuwaiti newspaper Al Siyasa. The following are excerpts from the translation[1] as it appeared in the Saudi weekly.”

96. Passion for Islam: Shaping the Modern Middle East: the Egyptian Experience by Caryle Murphy, p.54

97. State, Power & Politics in the making of The Modern Middle East by Roger Owen, p.180

98. Aspden, Rachel (20 February 2006) “The Rise of the Brotherhood” New Statesman 135(4780) p.15

99. See Wikipedia article on Hamas, quoting the Charter, and with references.

100. [4] “Spreading fundamentalist Islam – but does the Muslim Brotherhood also support terrorism?”

101. www.ft.com Far-right has ties with Islamic extreme. By Hugh Williamson and Philipp Jaklin. 8 November 2001

102. www.cnn.com Links Between American, European Terrorist Groups. Transcript of interview with Ahmed Huber aired March 5, 2002

103. [5] “Abdulrahman Alamoudi – Head of American Muslim Council goes to jail for 23 years”

104.

^ article printed in Al Ahram Weekly July 5–9, 1997, quoted in Passion for Islam: Shaping the Modern Middle East: the Egyptian Experience by Caryle Murphy, p.241, 330

105. Passion for Islam: Shaping the Modern Middle East: the Egyptian Experience, by Caryle Murphy, Simon and Schuster, 2002, p.241, 330

106. “The Principles of The Muslim Brotherhood”. http://www.ikhwanweb.com/Article.asp?ID=813&LevelID=2&SectionID=116.

107. “The Moderate Muslim Brotherhood”.

http://www.foreignaffairs.org/20070301faessay86208/robert-s-leiken-stevenbrooke/the-moderate-muslim-brotherhood.html.

108. “The root of terrorism is Wahabism”. http://www.buzzle.com/editorials/410-2006-93214.asp.

109. “The root of terrorism”. http://www.ataturksociety.org/letters/tarhan.html.

References

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Küntzel, Matthias (2007) Jihad and Jew-Hatred: Islamism, Nazism and the Roots of 9/11 Telos Press, New York, ISBN 978-0-914386-36-0

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Vidino, Lorenzo (2005) “The Muslim Brotherhood’s Conquest of Europe” Middle East Quarterly 12(1):